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Type of Product
- Lesson Plans
- Web Site/Portal
Language Skills Developed
Transferable/Scientific Skills Developed
Students will develop measuring skills, analytical skills, critical thinking skills, problem-solving skills.
Proteins are essential for all functions necessary for life in organisms. Proteins are created by reading the sequence of nucleotides in genetic material (DNA). During cellular processes known as transcription and translation, the DNA code is read, transferred into a copy called mRNA, and then the copy is read to create specific amino acids bonded together. The amino acids and their interactions create the specific shapes of proteins. In this activity you will be translating strands of DNA to mRNA, and then into small sequences of amino acids. The amino acids will then be bonded together based on their properties. The proteins will be analyzed for correct bonding patterns since the shape of the protein is directly related to the amino acid sequence and the protein's function. General aims: Students will develop an understanding of the attributes of design processes: brainstorm, create, test. Subject specific aims: to explain the basic processes of transcription and translation, and how they result in the expression of genes. Linguistic aims: - to listen English with ease -to read English with ease - to understand content - to learn from written texts - to express opinion - to enable students to understand topic correctly - to translate English words into the mother tongue using their own words. Guiding questions for this lesson? • How is a DNA sequence transcribed to create mRNA? • How are codons identified from mRNA? (every 3 base pairs=1 codon) • How is a codon chart used to identify an amino acid? This task is aimed at students of 14-16 years old. Level of competence in English (CEFR): B1 +/B2 Time required to use the resource with the students: 1 Hour(s) 20 Minute(s) How to use it: teacher provide students with the Central Dogma Challenge Lesson (lesson material attached) to present the fundamental information for the activity, essential vocabulary, the Amino Acid Table, and the Codon Wheel attachments to use during the design challenge. Teacher direct students to collect their materials listed in the Central Dogma Challenge, based on brainstrom, create, test, redesign activities. After completing the revision of the design, the students will revisit the analysis questions: • Did your protein have all the correct bonding patterns? Did it meet the requirements of the challenge? • Explain the processes of transcription and translation. How were each shown in this challenge? • Explain the role of hydrophobic, hydrophilic, negative, and positive properties in the arrangement/shape of your specific protein? • Reflect on what you learned today about protein synthesis. Have the students draw their new protein. Compare the final protein drawing to the first protein drawing. Record the changes and summarize the impact of the structure change. Teacher will monitor student mastery by asking questions throughout the STEM process in order to check for comprehension and understanding. At each point in the design challenge the teacher will ask students for "thumbs up" or "thumbs down" in order to monitor their comfort with the process. The teacher is encouraged to allow the students to think on their own during the challenge and to not give direct instruction. The teacher can, however, ask why the students created their protein the specific way that they did without showing bias as to if the idea was good or bad. Students should be able to use their own judgement while designing their protein. Students possess basic knowledge regarding DNA structure and protein synthesis. They should know the processes of transcription and translation and the Central Dogma of Biology. Possible difficulties for the students: Students who have poor knowledge of English may have difficulties to understand the topic and to implement DNA Central Dogma Challenge.
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