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Collection of Reviewed Teaching Resources

THE BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLE OF CARBON The green house effect and the solar spectrum

Subject taught
- Biology


Type of Product
- Videos

Language Skills Developed
- Listening
- Reading

Transferable/Scientific Skills Developed
To observe, analyze and describe phenomena belonging to natural reality and to the aspects of daily life To formulate hypothesis and verify them To use simple schematizations and modelling To acquire and understand information and know how to connect it To face problematic situations

General aims
To understand what light is and what her components are.
To understand how energy from the sun makes conditions life on the Earth possible.
To understand how electromagnetic energy is present in our everyday life. It is also used when listening to the radio, watching TV, using a cell phone or a microwave oven. We all depend on this energy, without it there would not be any life on our planet and there would not be the world as we know it.

Linguistic aims
• To improve language skills in L2
• To enrich scientific vocabulary
• To know how to move from one linguistic register to
• To produce clear and coherent texts in L2
• To summarize written texts

Subject specific aims
• To Know how to describe the characteristics of a wave
• To know how to describe the electromagnetic spectrum
• To know how to classify waves on wavelength basis
• To know how to identify the relationship between
wavelength and frequency

Target group age
14-15 age

Level of competence in English (CEFR)
Time required to use the resource with the students
3h 1h presentation and analysis of the resource
2 h discussion and comparison of the results of the
experiment by Herschel

How to use it
After assigning the vision of this resource as a homework, the teacher introduces the concept of electromagnetic spectrum, wavelength and wavelength scale according to common objects. Then the teacher starts a guided discussion on commonly used technologies: mobile phone, radio, various remote controls, wireless controls. Following, through brainstorming, the teacher involves students in a discussion that aims to encourage ideas to solve the problems that have emerged. Then, the teacher divides the class into small groups that must analyze and study what has been learned and that, independently and not in the presence of the teacher, perform the Herschel experiment by following the instructions by the teacher. In this way, students learn practically how the scientist, by means of a glass prism, discovered the existence of infrared light. The results obtained allow students to verify the link between color and temperature. The teacher must not anticipate the result of the experiment because one of the objectives is exactly understanding and using the scientific method: observing a phenomenon, asking questions, formulating a hypothesis, carrying out experiments, drawing conclusions.

Possible difficulties for the students
Defining the concept of wave.
Illustrating the relationship between the wavelength of a radiation and its energy.

Strength/Weakness The concepts are expressed clearly but they are not always exhaustive Scientific reliability “...NASA Science has a new team to help learners of all ages “do” science! Twenty-three competitively-selected teams from across the Nation connect NASA science experts, real content, and experiences with community leaders to do science in ways that activate minds and promote understanding...This ecosystem of teams and NASA Infrastructure projects meets learners’ needs in a variety of venues throughout their lifelong learning journey. Visit the infographic to learn what is available at various points in a learner’s lifetime...” Pedagogical value (e.g. collaborative learning, self–directed learning, peer assisted learning, etc) The methodologies used for this resource are: Cooperative Learning ,Flipped classroom, brainstorming and laboratory teaching. Learning by Cooperative Learning takes place working together, through mutual help which also promotes socialization. The linguistic competence of everyone is a valid mutual support for all students. Researches show this methodology is very effective, allowing students to achieve prefixed goals, stimulating their potentialities and critical capacities, leading them to better self-confidence and helping them to overcome stress and anxiety. The Flipped classroom has the advantage of saving a lot of time in the classroom because the students can study at home before taking lessons. The teacher must "guide", encourage, support students in personal research, collaboration, sharing and comparing knowledge, but he must pay the highest attention to the personal resources selected by the students. Therefore, different videos and e-learning resources are widely used at home, while in the classroom students experiment, collaborate, carry out laboratory activities and start discussions with each other to clarify and discuss the concepts learned independently. In this way, the student "learns to learn" and becomes an "active" person in his learning process. Brainstorming is essential for this type of activity because by comparison of different ideas, it stimulates and encourages student's creativity. Furthermore, through this methodology, the students can express themselves without any conditioning, learning to overcome anxieties and fears and acquiring greater self-confidence. Laboratory teaching is very effective, in fact it promotes not only the operation, but mainly the dialogue, the reflection on what is done thus offering students the opportunity to personally build their knowledge.